What Exactly Does "Rooting" Mean?

There is a lot of interest in "rooting" Android and iOS devices so that the owner can do more fun things with them. But most rooting guides are simple "how-to" lists without much explanation of how the process works and what is being done. This can make the process feel arbitrary and complicated, particularly for beginners. But it's not complicated, and if you're going to root your device, you're better off knowing as much as you can about it.

This is a conceptual and technical overview of what rooting a modern mobile device entails. We'll cover the whole pictures of rooting in simple, non-technical language. (If you've rooted a device before then you've probably inferred a fair amount of the information here.) The concepts should apply to both Android and iOS (although examples will favor Android since I have more experience with it).

Here's an outline of the topics. We'll work backwards.

What is "Root"?

Root is a term that refers to the de-facto ultimate administrative account on a device. It's a term that originated with Unix systems a long time ago. On a Unix-like system (Android, iOS, Linux, and OSX are Unix-like in concept), there is an account literally named "root" that exists by default and has the administrative privileges to do anything.

Rooting a device is simply a process to obtain access to that root user account. This requires effort because operating systems like Android and iOS run the normal user environment under a non-root user account that has privilege restrictions. To do something that the default user account can't do usually means the user must get root access to the device and use the root user account privileges to accomplish their goal.

There are perfectly good reasons why the phone doesn't run with root access by default. Root privileges allow you to do just about anything, which means you can screw up just about anything. The principle of least privilege is a fantastic security and stability adage; root privileges are best left to those who explicitly want/need them.

How Do You Get Root?

There is a program called su (also with old origins in Unix) that allows a user to open a new session under a different user account. This program allows users to effectively switch to a different user, including the root user, and perform tasks as that other user. Naturally, you must have access to the target user account to su to it.

Rooting a device is basically just the act of placing an su program onto it. Apps that want root access run this program to get a session under the root user and then they perform their root-requiring tasks with that session.

How Does "su" Grant Root Access?

A typical program runs with the permissions of the user who executed it. You can't run a program as the root user without first effectively being the root user. This creates a chicken-egg problem for getting root access because the user starts with a non-root account.

But this is hardly a new problem, and there's a simple solution. Unix-style systems have long had a file permission called the SUID (Set User ID) permission. When a file has the SUID permission set, it means "regardless of who runs this program, run it with the permissions of the owner of this file". When you install the su program, it will be installed as owned by the root user with the SUID flag set, so when a non-root app runs su later, su will run with root permissions, giving a root user session to the app that called it.

But having su hand out root access to anyone/anything that executes it is a really bad idea because there would be no protection for the account. So the a mobile-device version of su usually has a user prompt that requires the user to authorize attempts by su to get root access.

How Do You Install "su"?

To install su you must place it to a findable location, have it owned by the root user, and have the SUID permission set. Installing normal apps is easy but doesn't work for su. Normal apps can't be owned by root, can't install to key system locations where other apps can find them, and will belong to a user account with limited permissions. We need a way to take an su file that is not owned by root and make it owned by root.

Now we have another chicken-egg problem: For security reasons (such as this very process) you can't change a file's owner to be another user without that other user's permission. So we can't change a file to be owned by root without root access.

The solution is to get temporary root access in order to install su and give it the proper ownership and permissions, after which it will serve as a permanent anchor for root access.

How Do You Get Temporary Root Access?

This is the hard part of the rooting process, and one of the main reasons why there are so many different rooting methods. They all involve side-stepping the normal operating system security checks in some way. Some devices make it easy, some don't. Most of the solutions fall into one of these categories:

  • Boot to a different operating system and install "su".

    This is the probably the "cleanest" method. In a different operating system we can do whatever we want to the device's main operating system because it won't be running and can't enforce its permissions. Booting into a different OS usually entails unlocking the boot loader, after which you may boot to something like a custom recovery image, which is essentially a mini-operating system itself. This is one reason why unlockable boot loaders are such a big deal to modders in the community, if it's unlockable then rooting the device is straight-forward.

  • Find a security exploit that gives admin access.

    Sometimes security bugs in the operating system allow for exploit code to be executed in a privileged environment. For example, years ago iOS 4.1 could be exploited by a maliciously crafted PDF that would exploit the OS to gain root access, and that temporary root access could be used to install the su program for permanent access. Many security holes get patched eventually, so the community has to find new ones. (Security holes you can exploit can also possibly be exploited by others, so it makes sense that they get fixed.) Finding security exploits isn't always easy, that's why it sometimes you have to wait a while after a device is released for a rooting method to be made publicly available. (Although, there are rumors that sometimes some distributors include relatively easy vulnerabilities just as a nod to modders.)

  • Attach through a debugger.

    Sometimes administrative tasks can be performed through developer debugging support. Debugging support is aimed at developers and turned off by default. After it is enabled, it can often perform a variety of admin functions.

You only need to get root access once. Any subsequent task, including switching the su program for another one or updating it, can be channeled through an existing root session or a new root session from su.

What Is Necessary After "su" Is Installed?

After the su program is installed, a normal app to manage it should be installed. For example, on Android the popular ones currently are SuperUser and SuperSU. Such an app will try to manage the su program, such as by upgrading it, allowing for the user to configure settings for it, etc, since su is usually fairly minimal by itself. Not all su programs are identical, you should make sure that the one you install matches the su-management app you install later.

You may also need to worry about preserving root access through OS upgrades, such as OTA updates. When the OS is updated sometimes directories get cleaned out and re-installed. If the su program gets removed, root access is lost. This will be addressed more below.

How Do You Detect if Root Is Available?

Any app that needs root access has to be able to find the su program. It is usually placed in a well-known, typical folder of common system programs. Apps that need root access then check these common locations to see if they can find anything named "su".

Some apps refuse to run on rooted devices. They can detect a rooted device in the same way a normal app does, by finding a program named "su". Any program named "su" is obviously suspicious, but detection can go beyond that and check for any file owned by the root user with the sticky bit set. If the detection is very aggressive, in theory it may also pick apart an executable program to see if it makes any operating system calls that change the user account.

How Do You Preserve Root?

Given the above two sections, some users will face a threat to their root access at some point, be it due to an OTA update or because an app that doesn't work on rooted devices. Sometimes the user needs to preserve root access, even if they concede to losing it temporarily.

Keeping the "unrooting" temporary is simple: open a root session, use it to back up the su program, remove the original, and then restore the back up later. This is possible because a root session can be opened and preserved even once the su program is gone. This can save su from being blown away by an OTA update and it can be used to hide it from apps that complain if the device is rooted. To really evade active detection, they can try to hide su in even more creative ways, such as by removing the sticky bit and change the file owner, which look suspicious.

However, temporary unrooting is risky because the only hook into root access during the process is a temporary root session. If it is lost, then root is lost. This is why unrooting guides always warn against doing anything risky with your device during the process. The obvious big problem is rebooting, if you reboot then you'll lose your active root sessions and if su wasn't properly restored you'll be permanently unrooted.

Detecting and evading root detection is an open-ended problem, and the evaders (aka, users) often have an advantage. But it doesn't seem like most anti-root apps are overly aggressive about their detection, often they only do enough to be able to claim that they're avoiding rooted devices. (Think about legal media consumption apps that just want to convince the content providers that the app will check for rooted devices before downloading copyrighted content.)

Risks of Having Root

Having root access is not without risk. Any apps with root access have unlimited access to the device, including all the apps. Obviously some apps store things like login credentials, but others might store even more sensitive information, like the Google Wallet app on Android which has to store credit card related information locally. I'm sure Wallet has a lot of protection around the information it stores, but the bottom line is that since Wallet can unlock that information another app might also be able to. Hence the reason why the Wallet app offers a warning when it detects the device is rooted.

Even if you trust the apps you grant root access to and are sure they won't intentionally abuse it, what if yet a different app finds a vulnerability in one of them, uses them to get root permissions, then uses those root permissions for evil? You must realize that your security trust perimeter is expanded in a grey-ish way to any app you install, and fully extended to any app with root permissions, including su itself. You are trusting that they won't do stupid or insecure things with their root privileges.

Checking "su"

If you have rooted a device, you can confirm whether it uses the su method described in this article.

  1. First get a shell/terminal/command prompt on the device. (Use a terminal app, install and connect to an SSH server, or use developer debugging tools, etc.)
  2. Find the su file. Popular locations on Android devices are /system/xbin/su and /system/bin/su. If your device has the find command, you can find su using the command:
    find / -name su
  3. If su exists, check its permissions using:
    ls -l /path/to/su

    An example output:

    -rwsr-sr-x root     root        91980 2012-11-03 03:06 su

    This indicates that the file is owned by user "root" and group "root" and the two "s" flags mean that the SUID (run with owner's user permissions) and SGID (run with owner group permissions as well) flags are set.

You can manually use su to open a root shell on your device at any time just by opening a normal command prompt and entering su as a command. (At least, I can with the ones I've tried, YMMV.) You should get the standard confirmation prompt followed by a new root shell.


A typical rooting session on your device typically needs the user to:

  1. Temporarily obtain admin access.
  2. Install an su program that is owned by the root user and has a special "inherit root user's permissions" file-level permission set.

Just about any method that gets that done will suffice.

As a side note, the term "root" as a verb isn't new. It's long been used by hackers who manage full administrative access to a hacked machine. It's actually pretty much the same thing.

Hopefully that provides some context and perspective on the rooting process and how it works.